France will make vaccination against Covid-19 compulsory for all healthcare workers and will restrict access to cafés, restaurants and other venues to those customers with “health passports” in order to put pressure on everyone else to be inoculated as well, President Emmanuel Macron announced on Monday.

In an address to the nation ahead of Bastille Day on July 14 and the summer holidays, Macron also reaffirmed his commitment to economic reforms and to reducing French and European dependence on foreign suppliers of medical equipment and other technologies such as electric car batteries.

“Get yourself vaccinated,” he said. “It’s the only way to protect yourself and to protect others.” All care workers would have to be vaccinated by September 15.

Before the pandemic, France was among the countries most sceptical about vaccines, and official figures show only about 40 per cent of those working in old people’s homes are vaccinated, half the level of the vulnerable elderly patients they are looking after.

Macron appealed to reason, arguing that the vaccines available in France sharply reduced infections and averted 95 per cent of serious cases. He recalled that this was “the country of science, the Enlightenment and Louis Pasteur”.

But he also tightened the screws on vaccine-resisters, saying only those inoculated or with negative Covid tests could access large venues from July 21, with the measure extended to cafés, restaurants, trains, planes and buses from the beginning of August. And PCR tests for Covid, hitherto free in France, would be subject to charges from the autumn.

Hospitalisations and deaths from Covid have fallen steadily in recent months, but infections in France and across Europe have started to spike again in the past few weeks as the highly transmissible Delta variant originally found in India has established itself.

“If we don’t act from today, the number of cases will rise strongly and will lead to more hospitalisations from August,” Macron said, heralding a “summer of mobilisation for vaccination”.

Doctolib, a French online medical appointment booking site, said shortly after Macron spoke that it was making a record 20,000 vaccination appointments per minute.

Macron, who has quietly begun his campaign for re-election next year, also reaffirmed his determination to “re-industrialise” France by cutting dependence on imports, and pursuing economic reforms, including changes to the generous social security system. “In France one should always earn a better living by working than by staying at home, which is not always the case at the moment,” he said.

As expected, he also announced he would push on with reforms to simplify the pension system to eliminate special regimes for favoured groups of workers and to extend the retirement age. But the president said he would not relaunch the controversial reform “until the epidemic is under control”.